Discuss the impact of globalization on society.
SOC 2010, Cultural Geography 1
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit I Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
1. Discuss key concepts in human geography. 1.1 Identify different types of regions. 1.2 Identify different types of spatial diffusion. 1.3 Recognize key terms describing human geographical concepts involving space, place, region,
2. Discuss the impact of globalization on society. 2.1 Discuss security risks of globalization.
Course/Unit Learning Outcomes
1.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 1 Unit I Assessment
1.2 Unit Lesson Chapter 1 Unit I Assessment
Unit Lesson Videos in Unit Lesson Chapter 1 Chapter 2, pp. 30-32 Unit I Assessment
Unit Lesson Chapter 1 Article: “Technology and National Security: The United States at a Critical
Crossroads” Unit I Assessment
Required Unit Resources Chapter 1: What is Human Geography? Chapter 2: Globalization and Cultural Geography, pp. 30–32 In order to access the following resource, click the link below. Kadtke, J., & Wharton, J. (2018). Technology and national security: The United States at a critical crossroads.
Defense Horizons, (84), 1–8. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=tsh&AN=128867940&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Unit Lesson Welcome to the Unit I Lesson. This lesson will highlight and expand upon some of the major concepts presented in the Unit I readings on human geographic concepts and how globalization connects to
UNIT I STUDY GUIDE
Introduction to Human Geography and Globalization
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human geography. The lesson will contain examples, questions to think about, and videos to help explain this unit’s material. What is Human Geography? When you think of the word geography, you often think of a map or globe. Geography is much more than just maps. Geography has two main branches. The first is physical geography, which focuses on environmental dynamics. The second is human geography. Greiner (2018) defines human geography as “a branch of geography centered on the study of people, places, spatial variation in human activities, and the relationship between people and the environment” (p. 2). For this class, we will focus on human geography. Human Geographic Concept of Cultural Ecology: Past and Present Approaches An important part of the study of human geography is cultural ecology. This is the study of the relationship between the natural environment and culture. We will study this more in Unit IV. The course textbook presents several approaches in the study of cultural ecology to explain the relationship between nature and man. These include environmental determinism, possibilism, humans as modifiers of the Earth, and Earth as a dynamic integrated system (Greiner, 2018).
• Environmental determinism came from the ancient Greeks and argued that nature heavily impacted human development. The textbook lists three major criticisms of this theory. They include, it is too simplistic, it cannot account for the fact that similar natural environments have different cultural ideas and behaviors, and it is too ethnocentric (Greiner, 2018). Actor-network theory, which is rooted in environmental determinism, argues that humans and environment are strongly linked together in networks and that this relationship impacts human behavior.
• Possibilism is the theory that humans use creativity to alter and manage nature.
• Humans as modifiers of the Earth focuses on how humans modify Earth as the dominant idea in understanding the relationship between man and nature.
• Earth as a dynamic integrated system is the dynamic relationship between man and nature. This is the most used approach today in cultural geography. It sees man and nature as tightly connected and having a give and take relationship.
The most current and relevant of these cultural ecological approaches is the Earth as a dynamic integrated system. It focuses on how human impact on the natural environment has grown substantially since the industrial age. It talks about how this impact is negatively impacting the Earth, which, in turn, could negatively impact humans. Cultural ecologists use the term Anthropocene to define the time period we live in today when humans have had such a drastic impact on the Earth. Watch this short video explaining the Anthropocene period. The transcript for this video can be found by clicking the “Transcript” tab to the right of the video in the Films on Demand database. Terranoa (Producer). (2015). Age of man (Segment 3 of 11) [Video]. Films on Demand. In The age of man.
Due to the large alterations humankind has made and continues to make to the natural landscape, there is a great need to find sustainable ways of interacting with the Earth. Sustainable environmental practices are solutions that solve a problem but also protect the future health of the Earth at the same time. Sustainable development is defined in the textbook as “an approach to resource use and management that meets economic and social needs without compromising the resources for future generations” (Greiner, 2018, p. 44). Human Geographic Concepts: Place In investigating the relationship between culture (shared values and material goods) and geography, human geographers look at the dramatic impact culture is having on landscapes. They also look at landscapes to make inferences about past and current cultures. There are several cultural geographic concepts that go along with the study of culture and landscapes. This section will focus on how human geographers define and understand place. In cultural geography, place is more than just location and a physical description of the place. Place is a location with both physical and social characteristics.
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When we meet somewhere and define a place, we are usually talking about a physical location like a restaurant, a park, or a store. A place typically but not always has an absolute location or position of latitude and longitude on a map. An example of a place without absolute location would be cyberspace. Besides a location, places also have site, which are physical characteristics like mountains, rivers, etc. (Greiner, 2018). Now that we have discussed the physical description of space, let’s now talk about social and cultural aspects. Place applies situation, which Greiner (2018) defines as “The geographic context of a place including its political, economic, social, or other characteristics” (p. 8). So when you think about place as a cultural geographer, you want to dig deeper and think about the meaning associated with a place. For example, when we think about our home, we think about it as more than just a location on a map. We feel a deeper connection. We feel a sense of place. We think about the memories we have made in our home. The objects, activities, and people give our home special meaning that impacts our identity and activities. What place or places matter to you? What significance have these places played in your life? Human Geographic Concepts: Regions When cultural geographers are studying places, they often break down their study into regions. Greiner (2018) states “Regional analysis involves studying the distinctiveness of regions” (p. 6). The example provided in the textbook was studying the differences in place between New England and the South. The textbook also discussed the three types of regions (formal, functional, and perceptual).
• A formal region has measurable characteristics. It does not have to be a formal boundary like a state boundary. It just has to have characteristics that can be measured that tie the region together. These could be things like climate, language, landforms, or the example in our textbook of educational attainment levels. Latin America would be an example of a formal region.
• A functional region is an area that has at least one unifying economic, social, or political characteristic. An example would be the Research Triangle in North Carolina. Another example given in the textbook is a university.
• A perceptual region is defined by the meaning a group attaches to it. The boundaries may not always be fixed. An example would be the Bible Belt. A community of fans of the Red Sox baseball team is another example. There is a shared identity and connection to the team, but the fans do not live in a fixed area. It spreads out past formal boundaries, and it is defined by a shared identity and connection to that particular team.
Human Geographic Concepts: Space and Spatial Diffusion Space is another term human geographers use to describe and categorize areas. Greiner (2018) lists three categories of space: absolute, relative, and rational. Absolute space is space that can be precisely measured. Relative space changes depending upon frame of reference. A space in a network is an example. Relational space connects space to social processes. How you act in spaces may change based on perception and situation. An important human geographic concept connected to space is spatial diffusion. It is defined by Greiner (2018) as “The movement of a phenomenon such as an innovation, information, or an epidemic, across space over time” (p. 367). The textbook discusses four types of diffusion:
• Relocation diffusion: This refers to physical movement of people that spreads ideas and culture. Migration is the most common type of relocation diffusion.
• Hierarchical diffusion: This is the top-down diffusion of ideas and things. This can also be described as being diffused from higher rank to lower ranks. Diffusion of information from the chief executive officer (CEO) downward through the management chain to lower-level employees is an example. Another example would be the diffusion of Gatorade. Gatorade was created for college athletes (higher rank), and then it trickled down to the American public.
• Contagious diffusion: This spreads like pathogens or disease, but it does not have to be a disease. It could be an idea or fad, too. An example would be the spread of the cold or flu from area to area.
• Stimulus diffusion: This involves the spread of ideas and materials that are adapted or prompts a new innovation. For example, Chipotle is not making subs like Subway, but they are adapting Subway’s model of allowing customers to pick and choose the ingredients to build their tacos and taco bowls.
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Another fast food example is McDonald’s in India where they are applying stimulus diffusion to their menu because instead of beef burgers they are serving veggie burgers. So, the pop culture of McDonald’s has diffused there, but it has been adapted and does not look like the McDonald’s menu you would see in the United States.
Cultural Geography and Globalization Greiner (2018) states “Globalization refers to the greater interconnectedness and interdependence of people and places around the world” (p. 13). Globalization is fueled by economic trade. While globalization is not a new concept, it has rapidly accelerated in the past few hundred years. The textbook focuses on contemporary globalization or globalization that has occurred since the 1960s. Greiner (2018) lists five factors that have encouraged globalization. These include global market expansion, technological advancements, lower transportation costs, expanded flow of financial capital, and international and national policies making flow of information and goods easier. Globalization impacts all of us in many different ways. What signs of globalization do you see in your life? What pros and cons do you see in your community associated with globalization?
Reference Greiner, A. L. (2018). Visualizing human geography: At home in a diverse world (3rd ed.). Wiley.
Suggested Unit Resources In order to access the following resources, click the links below. The transcript for each video can be found by clicking the “Transcript” tab to the right of the video in the Films on Demand database. This video explains the history of satellite mapping and global positioning systems (GPS). It discusses the uses and benefits of these technologies. Discovery Education (Producer). (2013). Satellite mapping and GPS [Video]. Films on Demand.
Steve Howard, the chief sustainability officer of Ikea, discusses the necessity of sustainable practices and how businesses and communities can improve on sustainable practices to help protect the earth. TED (Producer). (2013). TedTalks: Steve Howard—Let’s go all-in on selling sustainability [Video]. Films on
Demand. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPla ylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=56653
Learning Activities (Nongraded) Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information.
1. Click here for a matching activity that covers some important terminology from Unit I. Click here for a PDF version of the presentation.
2. Answer the Concept Check questions on pages 8, 18, and 23. 3. Complete the Chapter 1 Self-Test on page 26 of the textbook (Answers to Self-Test for Chapter 1 are
on page 359).